Academic Writing is a method to write in which the experiments, sharing experiences that a researcher uses to describe the academic boundaries of the particular stream and specific area of expertise. As we all know about the features of academic writing include a formal tone, simple expression, writing to achieve some goal, or we can say the goal-oriented writing, having a clear focus on the research questions.
Through academic writing, one can explain their research work in a technical form and structure form. This makes the base of another invention either the field can be educational, scientific, technical, or so on.
Whenever we talk about academic writing, it comes with some books and research work. Whenever we consider the importance of academic writing, we can understand that it fulfills the generation gap. It transfers the living style, the thoughts, and an intellectual asset from one generation to another generation. Culture means the structure of the workflow in any system like social culture, economic culture, writing culture, organization culture, Technical culture, and so on. Through this academic writing, it transfers one to another generation successfully. There is some basic importance of academic Writing by which we can understand the needs of academic writing.
- The huge Picture of Academic Content- Besides journalism writing, the structure of academic writing must be formal and logical. It must be in logical formation, the meaning, the need/Importance, the principle, the content. In this way, the content flow will be more readable and understandable to the readers In the introduction paragraph there should be a small summary about the content that will be covered in the whole paper and journal or a chapter. By representing the big picture, it is easy to relate the scope and future of the particular stream. All research works represent a huge possibility. The books are the most important invention in academic writing. Anyone can not deny the role of Books and documentation of any field specialist.
- Tone-The tone shows the attitude delivered by the writing. It is important to use the positive, narrative, descriptive tone. When the writer presents some argumentative essays, should always remember about the tone of questions-i.e., are you disagreeing? Describe the argument of…. And so on. The language in arguments must be used rightly, useful, or without biased. The writer should know his arguments accurately, represent it confidently, using language must be natural, not dismissive.
- Enunciation-Refers to the choice of language and words. Awareness of the words, and we can say vocabulary is very important in every kind of writing. It can differ from the word having the meaning in a dictionary or the applied meaning of that word. This is very important in academic writing as words and terminology have a vital part to describe any idea, pre-concept, concept.
- Explains the Academic Boundaries–In any research paper, it is very important to have accurate sources of ideas, research findings, data preparation, data representation. For Example-In the data representation, we have to explore it with the help of different charts, if the research is base on quantitative data. In the qualitative collection of data, the use of questionnaires, Observations, Interviews helps to collect the original data.
- Represents Innovative culture for academic development in society-Academic writing is normally start from the experiments and survey. It has done and represented by various ways of research. It enhances the educational growth in society. The more research will be in society, the more innovations are there.
- Evidence-Based, Relevant delivery of data- In the Academic Writing, the relevancy and the accuracy of information are very essential. It is good to transfer by using the logical interpretation of data, different results of various Experiments, and finding with the best situation in any form of academic topic. We can take a minor example of Medicinal plants in Botany subject. By doing the experiments on various plants in various ways, the conclusion and the result must come out and it is relevant, clear, and object-oriented for the Ayurveda science student. The important thing is to present the medicinal plant’s specifications before the reader.
Problems in Academic Writing-
-Excess use of Technical Vocabulary
-Inappropriate use of subject-specific terminology
-Use of Personal Nouns
-Use of Directives and wordiness and vague expressions
-Use of informal tone and using slang words and idioms
Type of Academic Writing-
The Basic Academic Writings are-
- Simple Descriptive Academic Writing
- Analytical Academic Writing
- Argumentative Academic Writing
- Critically Analysis reports.
Each of its types has a specific language, structure, format, Features. In one Academic document, we need to follow all the writing style. We can take the example of a thesis-in the definition of any question, we will use the descriptive type, the collection of data and evidence we use the logical type, when we are in collecting phase, from where we can collect the relevant data it is a part of persuasive, and after that analysis of data, results, and conclusion of the reports is the part of a critical analysis of research. By doing so, we can identify the prospects of particular research. An Academic writer is aware of all of them. We will start with the simple descriptive type of academic writing.
1.Simple Descriptive- This is a statement that describes what happened? Statement of what something is like. It Explains a story, Explains the aim of the research, the importance of research, story, and book for a scholar, and the effect on the Academic society. We can take the simple example of Teaching Technology as Research. In this Research, we will find the need and the basic question of Research That’ What are the teaching techniques to develop the writing skills at the childhood stage?’ This will become our research question. In the descriptive form of writing it will discuss the methods which will be used in research. It also describes the time and relevant list of theories of a particular research. This is the essay writing which describes the experiments with evidence, personal experiences, Knowledge. If anyone talks about just for descriptive writing we can include so many topics like anything–about the person, about the poem. But in academic descriptive writing, we have several kinds of it.
There are some kinds of Descriptive Academic Writing-
1.1.Persuasive Descriptive Writing-
When we talk about persuasive, writing this is the writing which an academic writer writes to impress the reader. In this writing, the Writer wants to affect the reader. The writer wants some acknowledgment from the reader after reading this kind of writing. We can take the example of any debate on any topic at the time of schools like vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. Speak out your words and the listener will impress with the debate. Any writing which has the aim to impress the reader, to convince the reader with your opinion, is called the Persuasive Descriptive Writing. In Academic Writing, we need where we want some improvement in the student. For the graduate student, it can be a review report on Educational Policy 2020. Or Any critics about it too. It will affect the students.
Common Technique Of Persuasive Descriptive Writing
-Choose language must be clear, concise, and understandable for the readers.
-Writing Content must have an important and strong Argument to convince readers.
-Content must show a problem-solving approach.
-The concrete, relevant, and reasonable example will increase the logic of persuasive writing.
Here are some kinds of Persuasive Descriptive Writing-
- Critics- Critic is a kind of judgmental document about any research and any incidents. It shows the collective opinion of a particular group of people, or we can say. It represents a thought of a Social, Educational, Political cluster about any incidents. We can take the example of Removing Article 370 A from the Jammu and Kashmir. So many critics are there in the news from a particular region and society. The report on COVID 19, Originated from China or spread by China, Used as a biological weapon is critics report example.
- Editorials-Editorial is a kind of writing which represents the opinion for a particular society we can take the example of editorials for advocates are the previous judgment to prove their arguments in the court. It has a common structure-Like Introduction, Body, Opinion of Opposition and favoritism, conclusion.
- Proposal- Proposal is a statement by which an organization prepares the buyers for purchasing a particular product and services. There are two types of Proposals-1. Solicited Unsolicited.
- Advertisements-The Very Common way to impress the target reader.
- Broucher-It is used to give all information about any product, Services, or any technical invention.
1.2.Expository Descriptive Writing-
It’s a kind of assignment writing process that gives a logical, understandable, and unique argument for submission for a particular subject or a topic. This kind of writing completely depends on what task teachers give you. What kind of writing teacher wants from you. For example–If a teacher gives you the assignment for–to Create a report on the British period in India. There are so many factors like Social, Political, Economical, Educational, Situation of Women. Industrialization. It has a long descriptive report covering all factors. It must be a Descriptive report on the British Period In India.
1.2.1Process Report-This reports contain an Answer of ’ How To’ for any mechanism. For Example How about a seed germinates? So the answer will be in as a processed form.
1.2.2Comparative Report-This report contains the two factors, features, importance, and represents the comparisons both of them. For example, In the Automobile industry A comparative study of Hyundai and Maruti Car Sales. Or The mechanically comparative study in that student will cover all the mechanical parts of both company’s car, describe the features individually, and present a comparative report.
1.2.3. Cause and Effect Report-Research and experiment-based report, for example, the task is “What is a benefit to take the healthy food?, What is the use of exercise? What are the effects of global warming? How the COVID 19or a pandemic is affecting the economy of the world or India? Here are some causes and findings of effect through the research and collecting the data. It is a kind of scientific report. Does the writer have to understand what is happening? And why is happening? It is a simple cause and records the result as the effect of any incident.
1.3. Narrative Descriptive Writing-Narrative writing it’s a kind of storyteller, it does not matter wheater it is a real or non- real. It describes a story in fiction or a non-fiction way or in the form of poetry.
1.3.1. Fiction Narrative Writing-This is the imaginary narration of any story or incident based on writer’s thought, Opinion, Expectations, Ambition, and experiences towards the things for example-Novel, Short story, Fabel, Play, Fantasy, etc.
1.3.2.Non-Fiction Narrative Writing-It a kind of writing which is based on real incidents and person. It narrates Real Incidents, facts and happenings-We can take some example-Autobiography, Biography, History, Philosophy, Diaries and journals, Theories and results are some non-fiction narrative writing.
- Analytical Academic Writing– Academic writing is allowed to see the importance of various disciplines in various ways. When we use the analysis word with academic writing, It contains the logical and structured representation of the process to collect data, data representation, data analysis comparison between the data, and result representation in the form of charts, pie charts, graphs, and so.on.We can take the example of two learning theories in early childhood education. We will analyze the behavior of each theory in social context, the language learning process and how can we apply each of them in practice. For choosing the best theory we collect data from the different methods which are used for it like questionnaire, Interview, Last researches conclusion, and so on. After the analytical study, we represent the data and find some comparisons between the feature of both theories. We mention it in the report and have the analytical representation of data for each theory.
Analytical Academic Writing is the process to divide the Concept into the various parts to make a particular topic more readable and understandable.
Features of Analytical Academic Writing-
-The Academic writer should spend some time to analyze the data and information. He should realize the word Compare, Examine, Relate, Between, Contrast for analytical presents the research and data.
The writer must represent the data in the grouping form we can take the example of a book on the human body, in the human body it’s part, Like Categorise into several systems-Digestive systems, Respiratory System, Circulatory system, Nervous System, Muscular System, Skeletal System, Excretory System, Reproductive System.
The academic writer must know each system functionality and importance, How can we take the precaution for the functionality of every system. What is healthy food for every system? And so on. Every system must have an individual chapter in the book. The sequence of chapters or systems must be based on an analysis of easy to hard and known to unknown approach for the students.
The writer must contain the relationship between the two terms and give a comparative study for that.
The research paper must be clear to the reader. It must be presentable with the help of pictures, charts, and graphs.
The analysis represents the things that are not available on the surface level so as in academic writing. While writing the research thesis the data analysis contains the deep level of features, characteristics, the behavior of samples.
Each discipline needs to observe individually when it is described as analytical.
Some methods of analysis in research in well define and others have to be made by researchers creatively.
For example, in the chemistry book, any chemical reaction report has its specific format to define it. But when we talk about the literature or poetry, the writer has to create a central idea according to his creativity.
Every Analytical Writing needs to examine every part of data before representation for increasing Accuracy level.
Usually, the Research Paper, Research thesis, Books, Technical books are a good example of Analytical Academic Writing.
- Critical Academic Writing–
This is the most common writing style of every new writer. It is like persuasive writing, but it has only one difference that you should have over one point of view to represent it. It is the opinion that represents mass opinions on anything.
The example of critical academic writing is the research journals, reports, debates, and tests of any discipline.
Features of Critical Academic Writing
This kind of writing needs to accurately summarize to define the opinion and point of view.it should include all the interpretations, Assumptions, Theories, and Methodologies.
Must provide some evidence to prove the writer’s point of view.
For the specific discipline, various kinds of evidence must be there, for example, Logical reasoning and research data.
Critical Writer must have strong writing skills with the knowledge of the language, sentences, paragraph structure. The format of critical writing in Introduction, Body, evidence, relations between evidence, and conclusion part must be there.
Open-minded and objectivity inquiry is the main essence of it.
Providing an alternative approach with critical writing is the best practice of it.
When presenting the evidence this is good to know the limitations of shreds of evidence too.
As a part of Academic writing, we need critical writing when we have to organize the Academic content, have to make comparisons, analyze the data, test, and draw the conclusions.
- Argumentative Academic Writing-The Argumentative Academic writing is that when a writer does the Analytical and argumentative presentation of data. He uses the arguments in question, for example–How can yoga be beneficial at the stage of childhood. There is a scientific answer in it. This kind of document called argumentative academic writing. It wants the evidence and proof to prove for before and after the effect of doing yoga. So they can perform it would be a complete story of argumentative academic writing. There are some Basic terms of Academic Writing –
• Books, in many types and varieties
• Book Report
• Conference Paper
• Dissertation 6000 to 20,000 words
• Essay 1500 to 6000 words
• Explication–it is a note explaining some obscure part of a particular work
• Research Thesis over 20,000 words.
• Research Paper longer than essay 3000 to 6000 words
At the end we can conclude the academic writing with the process to concise, managed with some logical, reasonable, relevant, and correct information useful for the reader’s intellectual growth. It contains reasoning, the Process of an argument with logic consistently. This is to be said if you want to change society, change the education system. Academic Writing plays a vital role in education.
Readers and scholars can describe all the answers like-How, When, What, Which, Whose by the Academic Writing. There are several criteria for Academic writing besides the basic terms like–Books for the different stages for example Books for pre-primary education, Primary education, Upper primary, secondary, and higher secondary level.
The aim of research on a particular stage. It explores the academic writing Criteria. And we can say that in all the Writing Academic writing has a large scope. It includes psychology, History, Science, Engineering concepts, Maths, Literature. All the subjects Connected with Academic Writing.
It represents the Integrated approach in various parts of it. In Academic Writing, one can write the Zoology research paper, and using some data interpretation technique in mathematical/Statistics format. And prove the theories for the development of a child. It affects the learning process and we will use which technique for the particular child, Defined by the research paper. The complete relation is called the integrated approach of Academic Writing.
This is the separate Topic to discuss the integrated and interdisciplinary approach in academic writing. The writer must consider every applicability of concern theory while using the integrated and interdisciplinary approach in research writing. It requires a separate section to find out the cause and effect of the particular program and theory. Academic writing is not as small as it shows. It connects the society, Represents the society Can change in society by itself.
Hope this article helps the readers to understand Academic Writing.