Writing is a process/method /technique of expressing one’s ideas on to the paper and giving your thoughts in a relevant form. Academic writing contains the process by which a reader or scholar can get the information and achieve their academic goals.
So that it becomes clear to the people whoever is reading your content in context to your idea. Well, while going through with this many people thought of following the different ways of the writing process, one of which is your Academic Writing.
If we talk about the ‘Academic Writing ‘There is not a step by step or you can not a model of academic writing that can be applied for all streams and subjects. The experiences, practices, and conventions that are developed in a writer over some time are acceptable in ‘Academic Writing’. In academic writing, we cannot conclude it with one specific rule and criteria, because it has a vast area of explanation and definition. We cannot say by which method we are defining the history book, we can define the maths book too by using the same method, so Academic writing is a subject-specific and content-specific writing. Nevertheless, some general considerations can be applied to the academic writing task. This article can help the reader with what are the general demand from the ‘Academic Writing’.
When we talk about the difference between academic writing and other kinds of writing, we have to realize the difference that when to text regarded as Academic and when not? The meaning of academic writing is that we can start the meaning with a very simple example-
We can think that our assignment is to develop an understanding of a particular tree. Now in the sequence to understand the tree, 1. We have to identify the tree, kind of tree-like it’s a tree or shrub, the classification of the tree, then we have to give the abstract description of it. Like its shape, structure, color, season, description of leaves, fruits, use for human beings, etc. We have the objective to present a vivid, relevant, and accurate image of the particular tree whichever we are describing. But as academic writers, we have to think about the volume of information too. These basic pieces of information are not enough for mature readers. The writer will also have to go below the surface and inspect its roots like-What are the important factors for tree growth? How has it developed from seeding into a tree? How has it grown over the years? We need to start the description of the tree-like why the tree looks and grows like it does. But still, it is not enough for understanding a tree. You will also need to explain the tree’s environment, the weather conditions, the nutrition level of the soil, the animal living in the tree, etc. When a writer includes that level of dept of a particular thing or topic than it is saying that yes now it is understandable by a person who doesn’t have enough knowledge about the tree.
So basically the Academic writing includes-
• Demonstrates understanding-To increasing the understanding of an object, demonstrate through literature.
• Inspired by the academic literature and debates in the subject matter (the literature will help to define the interpretation of the concept, the perception, the description, the explanations, of the writer’s point of view in a broader context.)
• Has a logical interpretation of the key concepts used.
• Gives an accurate description of the issue.
• Investigates the particular assumptions and the historical development of the issue
• Explains the topic by checking out the relation between the issue and its broader context.
Academic writing is that the elementary way of writing which can easily be understandable and expresses without using long or complex sentences for any topic. Academic writing is mainly used by researchers or scholars, as it is the formal way of writing. It helps in exploring the topics, thesis, dissertations, etc., that enhances the clear, concise, focused, and backup by the appropriate examples regarding the topics so that the reader can easily understand it.
Principles of Academic Writing-
1. Clear aim –The Academic Content must have a clear objective. It represents the original ideas and points of view of academic writers.
2. Represents the References-When we talk about thesis writing as a part of academic writing, it has a clear focus on the objectives. All the literature which must be original and distributed in several paragraphs, every conclusion must have the evidence, it can be represented as an experiment and expert’s opinion.
3. Unbiased-The Academic writing must not biased with some opinion and idea. It should represent the unbiased results of the thesis. This shows the clear outline of methodology which are used in particular research and being honest to accept the limitation of the research paper or a thesis.
4. Follow the standard pattern-One must have to follow the standard pattern of writing whether it is a thesis, research paper, or a book.
5. Clear and Precise representation- There is a responsibility as a writer that the content must be readable, logical, clear, and simple explanations to the readers.
6. Using the Direct Formal Language-The academic writer must use the direct and formal language while writing any academic. There will be no uses of slang languages in any type of academic writing.
7. Logical Structure-The academic Document has a clear and logical representation of the writer’s opinion.
8. Grammatically Correct-The content must be grammatically correct. It must follow the correct representation of language and ideas.
9. Use of Abbreviations will be comfortable for the readers. Readers can connect with the topic easily.
There must be a reference list at the end of a thesis or research paper. From where the writer collects the information and then used that information as a piece of evidence or data.
Always ends your Academic Content with the conclusion. It is not a good practice if the conclusion is missing.
Stages of Academic Writing-
1.Understanding the Task
2. Collection of information/Reading
3.Planning /Creating The logical Structure
5.Editing and Proof Reading/Remove Plagiarism
6.Submitting/Final Conclusion/Ready for Print or Publish.
1. Understanding The Task- In the first stage we find the purpose of writing, we analyze every phase of the writing Topic. We Distribute the topic in several parts and then analyze the difference between the parts and relationship within the parts exists, we can take the example of a Research Thesis and it contains all the stages in every part of the thesis.
2. Collection of Information/Reading-Writer will collect all the information and get knowledge about any topic before writing. The writer has to do some research work before relevant writing. In this phase, the writer should do these tasks-
2.1 Define your topic and decide on the scope.–By collecting the information, the researcher or writer will collect the related information and define the topic. By defining the topic writer will decide the area/station of work.on which topic and how much information will be covered under this topic will be determined in this phase of writing.
2.2 Draw up a list of work-In this section writer will draw a rough format of the writing content and he will be aware now from the objective, the topic, the definition, and the scope of the topic.
For collecting information –
-Use the library and relevant database for sources.
-Use Journals and papers which have written by experts in a particular field.
-Use the skimming method by which writers can learn before he writes.
-Use the scanning methodology by which the writer can collect the evidence for specific information.
-The writer must keep a detailed record of the sources.
_The most important part of this phase is Literature review-
Literature Review-As we all know that there are two types of data in every research
1.Primary data 2.Secondary data.
In the literature review section, we consider only primary data collection or primary information collection part which has to be done by researchers and academic writers as they are more original than the other’s work report and experiences. In any research thesis and journals, Literature Review is to be considered in six formats as follows-
1.Literature review as a List—When the writer represents the literature review in the form of the list along with their content as a primary data source. It becomes part of a thesis or journal when a listing is there. For example-Author name, Book name, particular quotation, and achievements, and inventions.
2. Literature Review as a Search-This is an advanced form of a list. In this review, the writer searches the more relevant and concrete data to make the evidence. This process is more clear and objects oriented than listing out of literature.
3. Literature Review as a Survey-This is the more direct approach of any literature review, for example–If a socialist wants to collect information about the effect of a joint family on a person. So he creates a survey from the person who has brought up in a joint family and who has brought up in a nuclear family. After collecting the data, he compares the traits and achievements and concludes the result. So In this process, the collection of information or literature review works as a survey.
To summarise the literature review-
-The literature review works only on the primary source of data.
-It can play various roles in any research and thesis.
-It is a continuous process that began before the research begins and works till the end or we can say until a researcher does not explain the conclusion.
So we can say this is an essential tool for gathering information while writing the thesis.
3. Planning – In this phase, the Writer will plan his written piece i.e. the thesis, Scientific Journal, Article, and book too.
Need for Planning-
1. Planning gives the shape of the writing.
2. It will not dry up halfway.
3 Help to cover all the ideas of a writer.
5. Logical distribution and representation.
In the planning phase of writing, we follow the following pattern-
1. Prepare on time- The thesis and journals must be prepared on time. The time management must be there while planning for writing. The preparation time depends on the type of paper and the Length of paper.
2. Develop a title-Whenever Researcher decides the title ensures the well-formulated, Catch the attention, and attractive to readers.
3. A researcher has to develop the storyline for a reader. It means the writer has to draw a clear broad outline which moves from general to specific information of the research .so that the report has a clear prospect about the general research idea, Research problem identification, the methodology employed, emerging data, analysis of data, solutions, conclusions, and result of research and applicability, limitations and scope for further research work must be there.
4.The Drafting/The writing Phase-
After the planning, the next step will be the drafting or the writing phase. In this phase – the writing work must be clear object-oriented.
-Error-free use of simple vocab, readable by a non-technical person.
-It must elaborate every point in a well-organized manner.
We can do the writing Phase based on –
2. Readers Based
3. Writers Based.
1. Content Based-When the writer writes the article or reports on content required for achieving the particular goal, it means the writing is on the content base. We can get it with a simple example like–The Chapter is an Educational development in India-So it will start from The Vedic era to New Education Policy 2020 in India. In this content, if the content is for any specific time. The writer explores the development of Education in the British Era, or Independent India and Five years Plan and so. On.
2. Readers Based-In the academic Writing, this base of writing quite null because academic writing has a very important feature that is a very clear, goal-oriented, structured description of anything or content that can be used by scholars and researchers. Yes, it matters about the need of a particular department in the academic field, but this is different from the need and readers based on writing. There are fewer criteria for readers based on writing in Academic Writing.
3. Writers Based- Writer based journals, thesis, research when the writer is an expert in any department. The writer explores and shares his experience with the academic society for growing the intellectuality of society. That will be on the writer’s base. We can say that in writer based writing, the writer has to take the big responsibility regarding the objectives, benefits of the research, or journals.
5. Editing and Proof Reading/Remove Plagiarism-
This is the point where the writer revised and check the academic content. He will consider the basics of writing an academic document. The writer has to follow the reader’s approach and reconsider these points-
-The writer should consider that the representation of information is important as a reader’s point of view. There must be structural conventions for the particular topics, paragraph for making the reader’s friendly.
-The statements and arguments must flow logically and sequentially.
-The linking devices must be appropriately used, effective, and clear.
-This must be checked during the editing phase that all the points made are relevant and contribute to the argument put forward.
-Remove the repetitions.
-The cross-references and pieces of evidence must be indicated through the research process and journal body.
-The most important factor is the valuable content must be there. The reader must get their objective by reading a particular topic and research.
There is some presentation format of the thesis, Journals, Essays. If a writer follows that pattern, It will be more readable for the reader for example-
-The information must be sequential and logical order.
-The sentences must be understandable.
-The paragraph must be well organized.
-The presentation of the idea, Data, Results, Evidence are inefficient manner or are they sufficient to prove the logic of any research and journals.
-Avoid the use of needless data or information.
-Remove Plagiarism-Be remember, It must be in a habit to check plagiarism for every writer. It is on the internet website or for the book.
-There must be a clear distinction between the reference and the original statement of the researcher or writer
-If, The use of a quotation is essential than it sets an incorrect manner between the Content.
-It is good to use quotations for a specific purpose.
-Units of Presentation in Language-
Sentences- The very important entity of any kind of writing especially with academic writing. The reader will connect himself to the content through the sentences only. So the structure, The voice of a sentence must be according to the reader. There must direct and small sentences that are well defined and structured format. A good writer can remove the reader’s confusion by using short and structured sentences in his research.
Some checks for sentences are-
-A sentence should carry a complete logical thought in itself.
-A sentence must be completed in the SVO format.
-A sentence should make sense and be complete.
-Punctuation in a sentence is an unavoidable essence of sentence.
Paragraph- A similar sequence must be followed in the paragraph section. Using sentences must be in logically sequential order. The writer must define the core idea or main course of the article in the first 1 or 2 paragraphs, then explore it with the help of definition, features, scope, benefits, and limitation of the research. The sequential order is Definition, Features, and conclusion. The information flow must be from old to new, known to unknown, especially in Academic Writing.so that readers can connect with information easily.
Chapters– Similarly, the chapters should follow the principle of sequentially and logically connected content and paragraph. It can take the example of The Skeletal System in Zoology. So the introduction Part must contain about the human body, the Mechanism of the human body, different systems in the human body, and give the introduction of the Skeletal system. In the second paragraph describe the part of the Human skeleton system, Describe every part from head to toe with the help of different paragraphs and pictures. With the skeletal system, the Writer has to define the Joints or Kinds of Joints muscles as it is an important part of the skeletal system, and so on. This is a common example of a chapter description. The information flows in the chapter are from known to unknown and old to new. Using sentences and paragraphs in a chapter must be supported by evidence and data. The chapter conclusion is very essential it contains all the summary of related content.
We can take the example of the Introduction Chapter in any research thesis. The Introduction.
-must be able to orient the reader to the development of the argument.
– Set the complete Picture, The general concept and Idea, and the main question it arises.
– Differentiate and identify the gap between knowledgeable Content and understandable content. It must be clear at the Initial /Introduction Chapters in the thesis.
-The introduction fills the gap between the points or the several phases in research. Because it contains all the information from every chapter and idea of the research.
-Briefly, the description must be there about the chapter.
Conclusion –It is the final statement value of a particular thesis or journal or a chapter of a book. In conclusion, the writer must wind up with explicit statements and result descriptions. In the thesis, we conclude the research by doing the description of the outcomes of the research, Limitations of the research, and further scope of research. The conclusion should show the growth and reflection of the research in the terms of-
-What the chapter has done with the main question addressed in research?
-What will be the new scope and question for further research?
-Where will these questions handle and will get the exact responses?
-So In the end, we can say that this article helps the people who r new in academic writing and have less information about academic writing. With the help of this article, they will know about the basics of academic writing.
All the best for further writing.